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HEATER TREATERS
Warm vapors from the settling section enter the gas separation section through the equalizer pipe and mix with the cool inlet wellstream gas. This causes condensation of valuable heavier fractions in the gas which are recovered in the oil. The gas also passes through a vaned demister where entrained large liquid droplets are removed and returned to the oil.

Heater treaters are designed to break welistream emulsions, allowing the separation of crude oil from water and other foreign materials. Gas is liberated prior to the filtering and settling sections, allowing liquid and sediment separation without the agitation of gas breaking out of the liquid.

HORIZONTAL HEATER TREATERS
In the correct application, the horizontal treater has several advantages over the vertical. Increased liquid capacity for a given size vessel is possible for the following reasons: the BTU/Hr rating is higher because a longer firetube can be used. Settling time is enhanced because of the larger surface area of the oil/water interface, and the shorter distance that small suspended particles of water must travel to fall from the oil phase to the water phase.

A horizontal treater can handle large amounts of emulsion by utilizing a long "U" firetube. This firetube has greater heating capacity, thereby allowing a higher treating rate. The large horizontal interface area in the settling section allows for more efficient separation of emulsion and gas release. Horizontal treaters must operate under pressure to boost oil to storage tanks.

VERTICAL HEATER TREATERS
Vertical treaters use a firebox to heat water to a specified temperature; oil then passes through the hot water in streamlets. This is commonly called the "hot water wash" method. The height of the vertical heater treater is set to provide adequate time for separation and to provide gravity flow from the treater to the storage tank.

The wellstream mixture of oil, emulsion, water, and gas enter the gas separation section at the top of the treater. The inlet diverter deflects the liquid outward against the treater shell and causes it to spread in a thin film so both free gas and solution gas are released quickly. The oil, water, and emulsion are collected on the diaphragm plate and they then flow through the downcomer pipe to the spreader underneath the firebox. The free-water immediately separates from the oil and is discharged from the treater bottom section through the outside adjustable siphon.

The oil and emulsion is broken into small streamlets by the perforated tray spreader and moves up through the hot water section surrounding the firebox. This action breaks the larger part of the emulsion. The water released settles to the bottom of the treater where it is discharged with the free water. The final traces of water are separated by gravity in the quiet settling section. The treated oil exits the treater through the oil outlet at the top of the settling section and passes through the oil valve to the storage tank.

Vertical treaters use a firebox to heat water to a specified temperature; oil then passes through the hot water in streamlets. This is commonly called the "hot water wash" method. The height of the vertical heater treater is set to provide adequate time for separation and to provide gravity flow from the treater to the storage tank.

 

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